A variable frequency drive controls alternating current torque and motor speed in electro-mechanical drive systems. In layman’s terms, it is an adjustable speed drive that regulates the frequency and voltage to the motor. You can find variable frequency drives, or VFDs, in everything from small appliances to giant compressors.
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A VFD is similar to the motor to which it’s attached, they both convert power to a usable form. In the case of an induction motor, the electrical power supplied to it is converted to mechanical power through the rotation of the motor’s rotor and the torque that it produces through motor slip. A VFD, on the other hand, will convert its incoming power, a fixed voltage and frequency, to a variable voltage and frequency. This same concept is also the basis to vary the speed of the motor without the need of adjustable pulleys or gearing changes.
Variable frequency drives can be used to control the speed of a machine. There can be significant energy reduction if the machine is slowed down when it does not need to operate at full speed. For example, pumps operated so that they run at a speed dependent on the flow requirements will reduce the cavitation losses in the pump. If the pump is required to run at constant full speed, the addition of a VFD will actually waste another 5% of energy.
If you look at the difference between performance curves using guide-vane control and variable speed you will see pretty dramatic differences. "With guide-vane control, as you change the guide-vane position, you remap the blower performance curve just as you would when you change speed with a VFD. But you'll see that the curves don't just drive down parallel like they do with variable speed: They get steeper. The reason they get steeper is because you're sticking something in the airstream: you are throttling the blower as well as spinning the air. If you change the flow by throttling the inlet, you still have the same total pressure rise through the blower; you're creating energy, and losing some of it, because you're throttling it and not just moving the curve up and down."
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All VFD applications require programming. You have to make it do what you want. Parameters like minimum and maximum frequencies, number of motor poles, maximum current, overload response, braking behavior, acceleration profiles, etc. must be set by the user to match your installation's needs. The voltage/frequency curve is user configurable too, which is very useful for your kind of application where you are operating outside the normal frequency range of the motor. Good VFDs come with a display that can be set to show the motor speed (or any number of other parameters). If I were doing this, I would use a 1HP 208V two-pole motor and a 1HP VFD with a 240V input.
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